The Globe and Mail reported that people in Trudeau's office tried to pressure Wilson-Raybould a year ago to help construction company SNC-Lavalin Group Inc avoid a corruption trial when she was justice minister.
Wilson-Raybould announced her resignation in a tweet.
Jody Wilson-Raybould is out of Justin Trudeau's cabinet.
Canadian PM Justin Trudeau is being investigated for illegally attempting to shield engineering firm SNC-Lavalin from criminal fraud and corruption charges involving millions of dollars in bribes to the Libyan government.
Sign Up to our Newsletter for exclusive content, contests, and perks..
Scheer said he also sent a letter to Trudeau calling on him to preserve all the documents related to the SNC-Lavalin prosecution.
The newspaper says Wilson-Raybould was shuffled to the veterans affairs portfolio after she refused to direct the public prosecutor to forge a remediation deal with the company, which would bypass a criminal conviction.
For the details of Trudeau's involvement in tampering with the SNC-Lavalin case, however, all Scheer has to go on is an anonymously-sourced report in the Globe and Mail.More news: Trudeau denies claim PMO pressured AG to drop SNC-Lavalin case
More news: Celebs wear pro-Trump fashion at the 2019 Grammys
More news: Mixed bag of weather results in special weather statement for region
The resignation is the second blow for Trudeau in two days over the affair.
In a hint that the situation could grow more complicated for Trudeau, Wilson-Raybould has retained former Supreme Court Justice Thomas Cromwell to advise her on how much she can say about the SNC-Lavalin case. "I only wish that I could have served you longer", she writes. The committee is scheduled to consider the motion on Wednesday.
The Tories and New Democrats want nine high-ranking officials - including members of Trudeau's inner circle and the new justice minister, David Lametti - to testify before the committee.
"If Justin Trudeau and the Liberal government shut the justice committee's work down, it would send a unsafe signal to Canadians about the state of our democracy", Singh said in a statement.
Liberals, who hold the majority on the committee, appear to be open to conducting an investigation.
"We urge Mr. Trudeau's team to stop trying to discredit Ms. Wilson-Raybould and to commit to fully cooperate with the Ethic Commissioner's investigation". Trudeau informed the rest of his cabinet Tuesday morning about her decision.
He said he's "concerned about the many unanswered questions" surrounding Wilson-Raybould's resignation and added that this is "echoed by many First Nations across the country".
Wilson-Raybould, who plans to stay on as MP for Vancouver-Granville, has been quiet since the original Globe and Mail story broke, saying she can't comment because she's bound by solicitor-client privilege.