The winners will be announced at a ceremony in Paris on Monday December 3, with television coverage from 20:45 CET.
Five-time victor Cristiano Ronaldo, Luka Modric and Antoine Griezmann lead the shortlist for football's most prestigious individual prize, while Kylian Mbappe is the standout in the race for the new Kopa Trophy for young players.
Federation Internationale de Football Association split from the Ballon d'Or in 2016 to launch its own set of awards.
Antoine Griezmann is one of the great favorites to take the prize due to his triumphs in the Europe League, the UEFA Super Cup title and, above all, the World Cup in Russian Federation, where he was one of the most outstanding players.
Real Madrid and Wales forward Gareth Bale and Manchester City's Belgium midfielder Kevin De Bruyne also featured among a list of familiar names. Kylian Mbappe, the Paris Saint-Germain striker who burst onto the global scene with his performances as France won the World Cup, is the favourite.More news: Wife of missing Interpol chief says received knife emoji
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Thirty players will be announced on the shortlist for the 2018 award.
Eden Hazard gives Chelsea another player in the running after starring alongside De Bruyne at the World Cup, with England's Golden Boot victor Harry Kane also included.
The teenager is also on the 10-player shortlist for the inaugural Kopa Trophy, a new prize for the best player under 21, which is judged by stars including Cristiano Ronaldo and Messi.
Team-mate Bale is nominated after playing a key role in that European triumph, which included two goals in the 3-1 final victory over Liverpool, while Aguero gets the nod after scoring 30 times in all competitions as City won the Premier League and EFL Cup.
The Ballon d'Or, which was first won by Englishman Stanley Matthews in 1956, is decided by a ballot of journalists from around the world.