Australia finished their 20 overs on 2-229, setting Zimbabwe a near impossible target.Glenn Maxwell and Marcus Stoinis were left to see out the innings. He hit 14 sixes when he scored the record 156-run knock in 2013.
New Zealand's Martin Guptill and Kane Williamson held the previous T20 global world partnership record of 171, set against Pakistan in 2016.
Short soon began to find the middle of his own bat, though, and took a brace of sixes off Ryan Burl's legspin to take his strike rate over a run a ball.
Four overs later, his 15th four took Australia's score to 200, and he then moved beyond 150 with a swipe to deep midwicket.
The hard-hitting right-hander, who surpassed his previous best of 156 against England in 2013, smashed 10 sixes and 16 fours in his blistering innings before his freaky hit-wicket dismissal.
Short eventually fell swinging across the line at fast bowler Blessing Muzarabani to be caught for 46, while Finch fell in weird circumstances in the final over.
The Victorian superstar was eventually dismissed in a weird manner, chasing a wide delivery and accidentally hitting his own stumps inadvertently.More news: Luis Rubiales stands by decision to relieve Julen Lopetegui of Spain duties
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16 - The 16 fours Finch hit in this game are the most by any player in a T20I inning. "Disappointing not to be not out at the end".
'When the wickets get slower and lower, that kind of innings will help.
Left-arm spinner Ashton Agar raced through four overs while conceding just 16, while Andrew Tye's seamers were even more effective. The wicket played a lot better than we thought.
The 100-run victory was the biggest margin for Australia in T20Is.
"So new opposition and new environment has made a difference here so far".
"Complacency? Absolutely not", he said. "The wicket's very good as we know the ball travels here".