Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir told an Arab League meeting in Cairo that his country would "not stand handcuffed" in the face of what he called "Iranian aggressions".
Saudi Arabia urged fellow Arab League nations to find a "non-compromise" solution to deal with "Iran's aggression" and "disregard for worldwide law" during a specially-summoned foreign ministers' meeting in the Egyptian capital, Cairo.
"This is contrary to Iran's claim that its ballistic missile program is defensive as it threatens the Arab national security", said the statement.
Saudi Arabia and its allies Sunday lashed out at alleged Iranian violations in the region amid tensions between Riyadh and Tehran.
"The ballistic missile launched on my country's capital reflects the repeated Iranian attacks against the kingdom, which witnessed the launch of 80 Iranian ballistic missiles through its Houthi agent in Yemen, which was exposed to various cities in the Kingdom, and did not care about the Muslims' Qiblah by launching three ballistic missiles in a blatant attack on Islamic sanctity and a provocation to the feelings of Muslims around the world".
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has been promoting the idea that his country's ties with Arab nations are improving, and some experts have said there are signs that shared concerns over Iran are indeed nudging them closer. Alluding to the November 4 attack, he said it delivered a message to Arab nations that their capitals were within the range of Iranian missiles.
Speaking before Al-Jubeir at the 20-minute session broadcast live, Arab League chief Ahmed Aboul-Gheit was just as critical of Iran as the Saudi minister.More news: Funding for sports programs at question in new tax bill
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Bahrain has also accused Iran of being responsible for blowing up its oil pipelines.
Last week, the Israeli military chief, Lieutenant General Gadi Eizenkot, told an Arabic language online newspaper that Israel was ready to share "intelligence information" with Saudi Arabia, saying their countries had a common interest in standing up to Iran.
His son-in-law and adviser Jared Kushner has reportedly formed a bond with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.
Hariri said Saturday he would return to Lebanon from France for Wednesday's Independence Day celebrations, but on Sunday he said he would first visit Egypt.
In September, a senior IDF officer noted that the Iran provides some $60 million to $70 million a year to Hamas in the Gaza Strip, plus hundreds of millions of dollars more for militias in Syria and Iraq and Houthi rebels in Yemen fighting pro-government forces backed by a Saudi- led coalition.
Iran-backed Hezbollah - which is dominant in Lebanon - is also a great enemy of Israel, with which it fought a war in 2006.