From there, it's a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation summit in Brussels and a G7 meeting in Sicily -all before coming back to Washington on Saturday.
But Trump departed for Europe having offered no real indication of a path forward on one of the world's most intractable disputes.
Trump is now in Israel on the second leg of his nine-day trip, with stops in Italy and Belgium to follow.
The president received a warm airport welcome from Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
"We must stop what they're doing to inspire - because they do nothing to inspire but kill", Trump said.
During his monumental speech in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on Sunday, President Donald Trump surprised even his own staff with one key phrase.
"Saudi Arabia and numerous countries that gave vast amounts of money to the Clinton Foundation want women as slaves and to kill gays", Trump wrote on Facebook.
White House aides are attempting to downplay expectations for significant progress on the peace process during the visit.
From Israel, Trump headed to Italy for an audience with Pope Francis.More news: Trump mulls White House staff shake-up
More news: Putin suggests United States hackers could have interfered with election, blamed Russian Federation
More news: Sears says that some Kmart stores targets of security breach
Ivanka Trump, the president's daughter and senior adviser, was more direct during an entrepreneurship roundtable with Saudi women Sunday morning, telling the participants that in every country, "women and girls continue to face unique systematic, institutional, cultural barriers, which hinder us from fully engaging in and achieving true parity of opportunity within our communities".
The king has lavished praise and all the trappings of a royal welcome on the new American president, welcoming in particular Trump's pledge to be tougher on Iran than Obama was. Officials spent the days before Trump's departure dealing with a steady stream of revelations about the federal investigation into his campaign's possible ties to Russian Federation and the fallout from his firing of FBI Director James Comey.
Palestinians, who viewed Trump's victory with some trepidation, are said to have been pleasantly surprised by Trump's openness during a recent meeting with Abbas in Washington.
"Many people are saying it was wonderful that Mrs. Obama refused to wear a scarf in Saudi Arabia, but they were insulted. Who can say the region will experience total stability without Iran?" he said.
On Sunday, the first lady conducted a few solo events while her husband continued bilateral meetings with the Gulf Cooperation Council. He toured the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which by Christian tradition is where Jesus was crucified and the location of his tomb. The area is home to sensitive religious sites, including the Western Wall, the holiest place where Jews can pray.
State photographers were on hand to capture the moment, which quickly spawned memes from social media users who likened the U.S. President to everything from comic book characters to blockbuster movie villains.
The White House struggled to answer the question. The Trump administration drew the ire of some Israelis this week when officials declined to state that the Western Wall was part of Israel, as has been US policy.
Trump's fatigue also invokes comments he made as a candidate: his regular evisceration of "low-energy" Jeb Bush and Hillary Clinton.