Due to his actions, Vettel was awarded a 10-second stop/go penalty for "potentially dangerous" driving.
Red Bull's Daniel Ricciardo won what will be regarded as a race for the ages following three safety auto periods, one red flag and a series of notable incidents.
Hamilton was then asked about quotes Vettel reportedly told German media that the swipe was him making a point about Formula One being a "sport for being men", Hamilton replied: "If he wants to prove that he's a man we should do it out of the auto face to face".
Valtteri Bottas snatched second place from Williams' Lance Stroll in the final straight, as Vettel finished fourth ahead of Hamilton to extend his championship lead to 14 points.
"The stewards looked at my data and the reason I didn't get a penalty is because I clearly did not brake test him".
"Driving alongside and deliberately driving into another driver and getting away pretty much scot-free as he still came fourth, I think that's a disgrace", said Hamilton. "I think that says it all", he said.
"I will continue to do so and I want to do the talking on the track".
"Imagine all the young kids watching Formula One today and see that kind of behaviour from a four-time F1 world champion".More news: Pyongyang snubs South Korea offer to share Winter Olympics
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"Nothing happened did it?" he told Sky Sports when asked about shunting Hamilton.
Vettel added: "He brake-checked me so what do you expect?"
"I enjoyed the race but I don't think it's the right thing that I got a penalty and he didn't". "I think he disgraced himself today", said triple champion Hamilton.
"I nearly can't imagine that he did it on objective in shunting into him". Frustrated, the German then berated the Mercedes driver before pulling up alongside him and appearing to intentionally ram into him from the right hand side. "I was controlling the pace so like all the other restarts I slowed down at the same spot but he was obviously sleeping so drove into the back of me", Hamilton said. "We've been racing for years, we just don't do that".
"The championship battle is still respectful I don't have a problem with him, I think today's action was wrong", he said. "If you penalise me then you should penalise both of us because that was not the way to do it".
"Here and there you might get a bit close but people want real overtaking not just us driving past".
Indeed Hamilton, now 14 points adrift of his championship rival after he crossed the line only fifth, was furious with Vettel's actions branding the German a "disgrace", while also suggesting he take on his rival "out of the vehicle, face-to-face".
"It's done and dusted, we move on".
"If he wants to prove that he's a man, I think he should do it out of the vehicle face to face".